By U. Zuben. Anderson University. 2018.
Study meetings At least one top avana 80 mg without prescription can erectile dysfunction cause prostate cancer, often two 80 mg top avana amex erectile dysfunction drugs market share, service users attended almost all RMG meetings (23/24) best 80mg top avana erectile dysfunction from alcohol. We recruited two different service users to the TSC; they attended three of five meetings. We also involved service users in task-related meetings such as writing days, meetings to undertake qualitative analysis and research development groups discussing further research linked to the topic of risk prediction. Research activities Throughout the period of the PRISMATIC trial, service users were involved in a range of research activities including: l RMG meetings – all aspects in an equal role with other RMG members l reviewing research information ¢ format of patient questionnaires ¢ patient letters and information sheets ¢ interview schedules ¢ abstracts and posters presented at conferences l qualitative data analysis l commenting on strategies to increase questionnaire response rates (prize draw) l deciding to have a patient page on the PRISMATIC trial website (RMG decision) l developing and reviewing the patient page of the PRISMATIC trial website (at SUCCESS group meetings) l commenting on consent issues relating to the use of anonymised data l publicity (British Broadcasting Corporation, newsletters); focus of British Broadcasting Corporation publicity was on one of the service users l TSC – two members l developing and piloting service user terms of reference (at SUCCESS group meetings and RMG) l informal dissemination about the PRISMATIC trial to patient networks l co-applicant on further research bids, including a systematic review of risk prediction models and developing an intervention to communicate risk scores with patients. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 105 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. SERVICE USER INVOLVEMENT Reflections from one service user member of the PRISMATIC study I considered the PRISMATIC research to be advantageous to service users and I was pleased to be part of its development. I was able to pose questions and ask for explanations as part of the PRISMATIC team but felt there were some aspects of the research which could have taken a wider view. As a service user with chronic conditions I am aware of the problems with access to health services especially primary services, for example, GP surgeries. The research did not address the initial presentation at a GP surgery. GP receptionists were not able to identify the patients on the top of the PRISM pyramid (this was a problem when these patients were requesting an appointment). The remit for PRISMATIC did not include this and was considered to be the responsibility of the surgeries and I accept this. I do not have any issues to raise about involving service users as it has got to be beneficial in a research study. Service users, to be an asset to research and researchers, need to have some training and understanding of working within this environment. They must also understand the remit but never be afraid to put forward issues that they consider will benefit patients. That should be why we are taking part in research and we must not lose sight of this. What could be done better is explaining the remit more. There have been times when I could not see how a particular research project can work without some other basic changes made to make the research work in practice. When I have posed these questions I can tell the information is not compatible with the research criteria. Being part of a research project like PRISMATIC works for me. But what really worked for me was when I asked [name] to explain in plain English where we were at a particular time and the newsletter he produced after the event. Primary outcome l The rate, and proportion, of people with emergency admissions increased overall in the intervention phase of the trial, effects that were consistent across predicted risk levels. Secondary outcomes l Attendances at the ED were higher in the intervention phase than in the control phase; GP event-days were slightly lower; there were no clear effects on outpatient visits; bed-days overall were higher; mental health quality-of-life scores were similar between phases, but physical health scores were higher in the intervention phase; satisfaction scores were slightly lower in the intervention phase. Evidence of underprediction of risk was apparent at higher-risk levels, balanced by overprediction of risk at the lowest risk level. Costs l The implementation cost of PRISM in the first year was estimated to be £822 per practice, £0. Processes of change associated with the Predictive RIsk Stratification Model Usage of PRISM appeared to be low and declined over time. Usage was strongly driven by the QOF requirements in the GP contract, focusing on a small proportion (0. GPs were generally open to trying PRISM, but extreme pressures on their role limited their time and capacity for using it to its full potential. All stakeholders were aware of the limited potential of PRISM to support improvements to patient care without additional resources being put into community-based care services. GPs reported that PRISM changed their awareness of patients and focused them on targeting the highest-risk patients, though these may have been least suitable for proactive management. They agreed that PRISM was potentially very useful to manage patients from lower-risk tiers. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 107 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Strengths and limitations of study Our stepped-wedge study design, with randomised allocation of clusters of GP practices to receive the PRISM tool over a 1-year period and using linked data follow-up, allowed us to carry out a rigorous evaluation of this population-level intervention that included primary outcomes for > 250,000 people. We were able to anonymously link self-reported questionnaires for a sample of patients to our routine data outcomes, giving us a picture of effects on health service use as well as quality of life and satisfaction. Using linked data allowed us to include almost the whole population for those general practices that participated in the study. Inclusion of outcomes for such a high number of participants means that even small differences are detected and are statistically significant. In this case, effects were small but consistent, and across such high numbers of participants, resulted in large cost differences between phases. Our mixed-methods approach allowed us to explore implementation and reported usage as well as perceived challenges and benefits. The incorporation of qualitative methods, health economic analyses, as well as the investigation of technical performance, has ensured that a comprehensive evaluation has been undertaken to inform health-care decision-making of the value (from clinical, service, patient and economic outcomes) of PRISM. This is the first evaluation of the effects of the introduction of a PRISM in a real-life setting, although the tools have now been widely introduced across the UK as part of a comprehensive policy for the care of people with chronic conditions, with higher rates of management of patients outside hospital, through primary- or community-based services or self-care. However, within the constraints of a funded evaluation, we were only able to include outcomes up to 18 months from implementation of PRISM at the first practices. We do not know what the longer-term effects would be. Self-reported health-related quality-of-life and satisfaction findings are based on a sample which was weighted to favour patients at higher levels of risk. These scores therefore need further analysis to account for non-responders and for this weighting, so that findings are representative of the whole population. There were a number of practical and analytical challenges associated with using anonymised linked routine data for the assessment of cost-effectiveness. With respect to the cost-effectiveness analyses, there is little literature available on the conduct of health economic analyses alongside trial designs of this nature. We demonstrated that appropriate methods can be applied; a particular strength of our analyses is that we undertook cost, cost-effectiveness, cost–consequences and cost–utility analyses, and trial-based budget impact to provide as full a picture as possible of the economic impact of PRISM.
This observation suggests that sustained overstimu- in this study had a limited resolution buy 80mg top avana overnight delivery buy generic erectile dysfunction drugs, and the low specific lation of D2 receptors leads to remodeling of prefrontal- to nonspecific ratio of [11C]SCH3390 makes the measure- ventrostriatal-thalamic-prefrontal loops and their modula- ment of D1 receptor in PFC with this ligand quite vulner- tion by hippocampal afferents projections discount top avana 80 mg with visa erectile dysfunction cancer, neuronal ensem- able to noise (85) 80 mg top avana erectile dysfunction treatment boots. Several groups are currently attempting bles that are believed to underlie the psychotic experience to replicate this finding, using better cameras and a superior (74,75). In the amphetamine studies, DA-mediated stimu- D1 receptor radiotracer, [11C]NNC 112 (86). As D1 receptors are tients with schizophrenia (41), indicating that factors down- the most abundant DA receptors in the PFC, the availability stream from the DA synapse play a role in the exacerbation of a D1 receptor radiotracer vulnerable to competition by of these symptoms following amphetamine. Unfortunately, such a ligand is currently lacking gesting that, in some patients, the experience of positive (87,88). Patients with psychotic symptoms in Studies of Nondopaminergic Receptors the presence of apparently normal DA function failed to in Schizophrenia show significant improvement in these symptoms following 6 weeks of D2 receptor blockade (45). Thus, although these Receptors related to the GABA and 5-HT systems have imaging studies have generally confirmed the time-honored been studied in vivo in schizophrenia. Postmortem studies dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, they also contrib- reported abnormalities of both systems in schizophrenia. A uted to pointing out the limitations of an oversimplified robust body of findings suggests deficiency of GABAergic model linking psychosis and excess DA activity. In vivo evaluation of GABAergic systems in schizophrenia has so far been limited to evaluation of benzo- Prefrontal DA D1 Receptor Density 123 diazepine receptor densities with SPECT and [ I]ioma- As discussed above, several lines of evidence from preclini- zenil, and three out of three studies comparing patients with cal, clinical, and postmortem studies converge to suggest schizophrenia and controls reported no significant regional that a deficiency in DA transmission in the prefrontal cortex differences (91–93). Although some significant correlations is involved in the pathophysiology of negative symptoms with symptoms clusters and regional benzodiazepine densi- and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (14,16). Fur- ties have been observed (91,92,94,95), these relationships Chapter 59: Neurochemical and Neuropharmacological Imaging in Schizophrenia 841 have not been replicated by other studies. Thus, together, selective D2 receptor antagonists (haloperidol and raclo- these studies are consistent with an absence of marked ab- pride) suggested that 50% to 60% occupancy was required normalities of benzodiazepine receptor concentration in the to observe a rapid clinical response (107,108). Alterations of GA- pine, at clinically therapeutic doses, achieved only 40% to BAergic systems in schizophrenia might not involve benzo- 60% D2 receptor occupancy (104,106,109), which, in con- diazepine receptors (96), or be restricted to certain cortical junction with its anticholinergic properties, accounts for layers or classes of GABAergic cells that are beyond the its low liability for extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs). Recent developments in GABA imaging with MRS antagonists' such as risperidone does not confer protection (described below) are a promising new avenue to study in against EPS, because the threshold of D2 receptor occu- vivo GABAergic function in schizophrenia. Given the relatively recent development tors might be sufficient to elicit clinical response (114,115). The concentra- 123 degree of occupancy achieved by atypical antipsychotic tion of SERT in the midbrain measured by [ I] -CIT is drugs in striatal and extrastriatal areas. Studies with reported lower occupancy of striatal D2 receptors compared more specific ligands are warranted to assess the distribution to temporal cortex D2 receptors in seven patients treated of SERT in other brain areas, such as the PFC, where their density has been reported to be reduced in three out of four with clozapine, using the high-affinity SPECT ligand [123I]epidipride. In contrast, typical antipsychotics were re- postmortem studies (97). Decrease in 5-HT2A receptors has been reported in the PFC in four out of eight postmortem ported to achieve similar occupancy in striatal and extras- triatal areas, as measured with [11C]FLB 457 (117) or studies (97,98). Three PET studies in drug-naive or drug- [123I]epidipride (118). It should be noted, however, that free patients with schizophrenia reported normal cortical 5-HT2A receptor binding (98–100), whereas one study re- these very high affinity ligands do not allow accurate deter- ported a significant decrease in PFC 5-HT2A binding in a mination of D2 receptor availability in the striatum. In con- trast, [18F]fallypride enables accurate determination of D2 small group (n 6) of drug-naive schizophrenic patients (101). The most consistent abnormality of 5-HT param- receptor availability in both striatal and extrastriatal areas eters reported in postmortem studies in schizophrenia is an (119), and preliminary PET experiments in primates with increase in the density of 5-HT receptors in the PFC, [18F]fallypride indicate that clozapine and risperidone 1A reported in seven out of eight studies (97). Several groups achieve similar D2 receptor occupancy in striatal and extra- are currently evaluating the binding of this receptor in vivo striatal regions (120). Finally, it is important to point out with PET and [11C]WAY100907. Improved resolution of PET cameras cur- Maybe the most widespread use of neuroreceptor imaging rently allows dissociating signals from ventral and dorsal in schizophrenia over the last decade has been the assessment striatum (123,124), and it is now feasible to specifically of neuroreceptor occupancy achieved by typical and atypical study the clinical correlates of D2 receptor occupancy in antipsychotic drugs, a topic that has been the subject of ventral striatum in humans. Neuroreceptor studied included Another unresolved question is the discrepant values of essentially D2 receptors, but also 5-HT2A and D1 receptors. The haloperidol plasma concentration as- sociated with 50% inhibition of [11C]NMSPbinding (3 to threshold of occupancy of striatal D2 receptors (about 80%) above which extrapyramidal side effects are likely to occur 5 mg/mL) (125) is ten times higher than that associated with 50% inhibition of [11C]raclopride binding (0. Quetiapine, at a dose of 750 mg, decreased [11C]raclopride-specific binding by 51%, but failed to affect sponse (105,106). Yet, most studies were performed at doses [11C]NMSP-specific binding (127). These observations achieving more than 50% occupancy, and the minimal level of occupancy required for therapeutic response remains un- contribute to the debate regarding differences between ben- defined. Two studies performed with low doses of relatively zamides and butyrophenones binding to D2 receptors. For example, despite major research ef- of the nucleus. An MRS experiment involves four steps, forts, direct measurement of parameters of glutamate trans- analogous to an MRI procedure. First, specific nuclei are mission are still not available. Radiotracers enabling evalua- excited with a brief 'pulse' of a radiofrequency (RF) mag- tion of second messengers and intracellular pathways are netic field supplied by an RF transmitter coil. A growing collaboration tion causes magnetized spins to transiently assume a higher between academic centers and industry currently holds the energy state, from which they 'relax' to a lower energy state promise of increasing access to molecules for evaluation as of equilibrium magnetization. Because the energy states are candidate radiotracers. These resonant frequencies are more informative than simple measurement of receptor den- unique for each atom, and vary in proportion to the strength sity. With the exception of the cholinergic system (129, 11 of the external field. The motion of spins in the process of 130), the paradigm used with [ C]raclopride and 123 returning to equilibrium ('relaxation') induces a current [ I]IBZM has been difficult to extend to other neurore- in a receiver coil, which represents the MR signal. Additional research is warranted to better characterize linear magnetic gradients that add localizing characteristics the factors that confer vulnerability of radiotracers in vivo to the signal. The third step involves translating the signal binding to functional status of neurotransmission. The fourth step involves the mathematical and sta- the high cost of these investigations. This growing availability should be associated with but most abundantly in water and lipids. Although the sig- a vigorous research effort toward the development of more nal from hydrogen contains frequencies corresponding to F-18 based probes, since the relatively longer half-life of F- many different molecules, the water and lipids signals domi- 18 compared to C-11 does not require that these ligands nate and the signals from hydrogen in other molecules are be radiolabeled locally. MRS, however, is based on resolving these other technetium-based neuroreceptor ligands (131) will further molecular signals. These molecules are identifiable because enhance the availability of these techniques to the nuclear of the phenomenon called 'chemical shift. This shielding effect will cause the nucleus to experience a slightly different MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY external field, and thus to resonate at a slightly shifted fre- quency. Because the degree of shielding varies from one Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a chemical assay molecule to another, depending on the electron sharing of technique. It is the only clinically available method for the the chemical bonds in the molecule, the exact shift in the direct measurement of chemical moieties in the living brain.
One postal reminder was then sent to those who had not responded and in that reminder letter an online version of the questionnaire was offered order top avana 80mg online erectile dysfunction low testosterone treatment. We calculated that a response of 340 would be required for 95% confidence intervals of reasonable width purchase 80mg top avana with amex erectile dysfunction adderall xr. For the first survey in 2014 discount top avana 80mg with amex causes of erectile dysfunction include, there were 385 responses in total (12. For the second survey in 2016, there were 380 responses (12. The 18-month interval between the two surveys was designed to allow tracking of unfolding events and the maturation of the CCGs; thus, a longitudinal element was enabled. We analysed key features of the non-responding CCGs, but there was no discernible pattern. They were distributed geographically and we could find no particular characteristic common features among the non-respondents that would distinguish them from those who did respond. In case of bias towards high-achieving CCGs, we compared our respondent CCGs with the profile of the 2016 NHSE ratings of CCGs. The very close match suggests that respondents from struggling CCGs were just as willing to respond to the survey as those from high-performing CCGs. The main in-depth case studies Following the pilot case study phase and the first national survey, the focus of research work shifted to the six main case studies. The selection of these core cases was informed, as planned, by the results from the first national survey and was also shaped by our knowledge of activity across potential case sites. We wanted geographical coverage so we ensured that the cases included CCGs in London, the Midlands and the North, and we also ensured coverage of urban and rural settings. Of special importance was our knowledge of the degree of service redesign activity occurring in these settings. A random selection of cases might easily have resulted in six CCGs characterised by relatively little activity. In order for us to be able to tease out the elemental processes of clinical engagement and leadership in service redesign, it was important to ensure that some of the cases had strong prima facie indications that they would be able to TABLE 1 The comparative distribution of survey respondents and the NHSE ratings profile 2015–16 NHSE ratings profile 2015–16 (%) CCGs sampled Inadequate Requires improvement Good Outstanding All NHSE CCGs 12 44 39 5 Our CCG sample 12 41 41 6 14 NIHR Journals Library www. Within each CCG we selected for detailed study one, or in some cases two, specific service innovations in particular areas. Within these cases there were also many research choices to be made. We used both purposeful sampling and theoretical sampling to access the most appropriate informants. First, we selected informants whom we expected would have the most relevant knowledge of the background issues affecting the CCG as a whole. This cluster was broadly common across the cases (accountable officer, CCG chairperson, clinical leads, and so on). However, in addition we were sensitive to the particularities of each service redesign attempt studied. Here we used onward referral – a snowball research technique – in order to include informed and diverse perspectives appropriate to the situation. For each service redesign attempt researched, a set of interviewees was agreed with a senior sponsor of the research collaboration within the CCG. The selection of each sample was guided by the need to include the actors who had played a key role in initiating, shaping and evaluating the course of the service redesign event. This typically meant that clinical leads, programme managers and project managers, as well as some of the clinicians, were involved. In several cases we were also able to include patient representatives who had been involved in the service innovation (e. In recognition of the multilayered nature of health-care reform, it was necessary to look upwards and outwards to the wider context, including area, regional and national policies and institutions which had an impact on the service areas under focal scrutiny. Thus the institutional settings usually had fuzzy boundaries which extended across primary, secondary, administrative, regulatory, professional and educational institutions. Theoretical sampling allows the clarification of the relationships among multiple constructs. We used this approach in order to identify further interviewees in each case, to ensure exposure to data from informants who could add to an accumulative and iterative body of knowledge about relevant issues. The range of informants evolved with the emergent theory. First, we conducted pre-entry documentary analysis drawing on a wide range of sources. Second, we conducted face-to-face semistructured interviews. Although interviews can be a highly efficient and effective research tool, it is recognised that they also present the challenge that bias may arise because of the efforts of image-conscious informants. This challenge was mitigated through the use of multiple interviews among diverse informants who were likely to view the issues and events from different standpoints. Some of the interviews were conducted with both researchers present, other interviews with just one researcher. In the main, interviews were recorded and transcribed. The researchers drew on a semistandard interview schedule comprising semistructured interview questions. These had to be adapted to the varying situations including, for example, the subject of the service redesign under scrutiny and the role and vantage point of the interviewee. The semistructured interview schedule was adapted accordingly. Appendix 4 shows a typical example of one such interview guideline. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 15 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. PROJECT DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Case study data analysis As mentioned, members of the research team worked in pairs for each main case study. These subteams undertook the first stage of each data analysis process. In this way a coherent narrative of the flow of events within each case could be constructed. This was combined with a descriptive account of the issues and challenges encountered by the actors involved. These first-level reports used a common framework: (1) context, (2) focus and narrative of the case, (3) clinical leadership themes emerging and (4) emerging ideas for cross-case comparisons. The first three sections of these initial draft reports were fed back to informants in the case studies concerned, as a way of validating the accuracy of the data collected and the descriptive interpretations made. Next, the first-level case reports were discussed, in turn, at a monthly series of research team meetings. From these discussions emerged ideas for explanatory concepts that could be applied to understand differences and similarities in the nature of clinical leadership across the cases. This process of discussion, conceptualisation and comparison between the cases led to the development of the conceptual framework for analysing the cases set out at the beginning of Chapter 4.