By D. Dan. Olivet Nazarene University. 2018.
Prolyl hydroxylase requires vitamin C buy 80mg tadapox mastercard erectile dysfunction drugs walmart, and in the absence of hydroxylation cheap 80mg tadapox visa erectile dysfunction treatment viagra, the collagen a-chains do not form stable purchase 80 mg tadapox with mastercard erectile dysfunction diabetes uk, mature collagen. In the first stage, metabolic fuels are hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to a diverse set of monomeric building blocks (glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids) and absorbed. In the second stage, the building blocks are degraded by various pathways in tissues to a com- mon metabolic intermediate, acetyl-CoA. Most of the energy contained in metabolic fuels is conserved in the chemical bonds (electrons) of acetyl-CoA. Reduction indicates the addition of electrons that may be free, part of a z hydrogen atom (H), or a hydride ion (H-). Most of the excess energy from the diet is stored as fatty acids (a reduced polymer of acetyl CoA) and glycogen (a polymer of glucose). Although proteins can be mobilized for energy in a prolonged fast, they are normally more important for other functions (contractile elements in muscle, enzymes, intracellular matrix, etc. In addition to energy reserves, many other types of biochemicals are required to maintain an organism. Cholesterol is required for cell membrane structure, proteins for muscle contraction, and polysaccharides for the intracellular matrix, to name just a few examples. Shifts between storage and mobilization of a particular fuel, as well as shifts among the types of fuel being used, are very pronounced in going from the well-fed state to an overnight fast, and finally to a prolonged state of starvation. The shifting metabolic patterns are regulated mainly by the insulin/glucagon ratio. Its action is opposed by a number of hormones, including glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone. The major function of glucagon is to respond rapidly to decreased blood glucose levels by promoting the synthesis and release of glucose into the circulation. The three major target tissues for insulin are liver, muscle, and adipose tissue (Figure 1-11-2). After the glycogen stores are filled, the liver converts excess glucose to fatty acids and triglycerides. Insulin promotes triglyceride synthesis in adipose tissue and protein synthesis in muscle, as well as glucose entry into both tissues. After a meal, most of the energy needs of the liver are met by the oxidation of excess amino acids. Two tissues, brain and red blood cells (Figure 1-11-2), are insensitive to insulin (are insulin independent). Under all conditions, red blood cells use glucose anaerobically for all their energy needs. Postabsorptive State Glucagon and epinephrine levels rise during an overnight fast. In liver, glycogen degradation and the release of glucose into the blood are stimulated (Figure 1-11-3). Hepatic gluconeogenesis is also stimu- lated by glucagon, but the response is slower than that of glycogenolysis. The release of amino acids from skeletal muscle and fatty acids from adipose tissue are both stimulated by the decrease in insulin and by an increase in epinephrine. Lipolysis is rapid, resulting in excess acetyl-CoA that is used for ketone synthesis. Muscle uses fatty acids as the major fuel, and the brain adapts to using ketones for some of its energy. After several weeks of fasting, the brain derives approxi- mately two thirds of its energy from ketones and one third from glucose. The shift from glucose to ketones as the major fuel diminishes the amount of protein that must be degraded to support gluconeogenesis. There is no "energy-storage form" for protein because each protein has a specific function in the cell. Therefore, the shift from using glucose to ketones during starvation spares protein, which is essential for these other functions. Red blood cells (and renal medullary cells) that have few, if any, mitochondria continue to be dependent on glucose for their energy. Complete combus- tion of fat results in 9 kcallg compared with 4 kcallg derived from carbohydrate, protein, and A recommended 2,100- ketones. The storage capacity and pathways for utilization of fuels varies with different organs kcal diet consisting of 58% and with the nutritional status of the organism as a whole. The organ-specific patterns of fuel carbohydrate, 12% protein, utilization in the well-fed and fasting states are summarized in Table 1-11-1. Preferred Fuels in the Well-Fed and Fasting States 305 g of carbohydrate Organ Well-Fed Fasting 0. Any glucose remaining in the liver is then converted to acetyl CoA and used for fatty acid synthesis. The increase in insulin after a meal stimulates both glycogen synthesis and fatty acid synthesis in liver. In the well-fed state, the liver derives most of its energy from the oxidation of excess amino acids. Between meals and during prolonged fasts, the liver releases glucose into the blood. The increase in glucagon during fasting promotes both glycogen degradation and gluconeogenesis. Lactate, glycerol, and amino acids provide carbon skeletons for glucose synthesis. Lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme found in the capillary bed of adipose tissue, is induced by insulin. The fatty acids that are released from lipoproteins are taken up by adipose tissue and re-esterified to triglyceride for storage. The glycerol phosphate required for triglycer- ide synthesis comes from glucose metabolized in the adipocyte. Insulin is also very effective in suppressing the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue. During the fasting state, the decrease in insulin and the increase in epinephrine activate hor- mone-sensitive lipase in fat cells, allowing fatty acids to be released into the circulation. Skeletal Muscle Resting Muscle The major fuels of skeletal muscle are glucose and fatty acids. After a meal, under the influence of insulin, skeletal muscle takes up glucose to replenish glycogen stores and amino acids that are used for protein synthesis. In the fasting state, resting muscle uses fatty acids derived from free fatty acids in the blood.
This companies and address fears that employers information might indicate patterns of behavior will find out about their substance use or that that continue to affect recovery discount 80mg tadapox mastercard erectile dysfunction what kind of doctor. Patientsí military history also might reveal their eligibility for medical and treatment Em ploym ent history resources through U purchase 80 mg tadapox with amex erectile dysfunction causes heart disease. Department of Another important component of psychosocial Veterans Affairs programs and hospitals or assessment is a patientís employment history cheap tadapox 80mg amex erectile dysfunction and diabetes pdf. Attention on-the-job accidents, and increased claims for to the ethics of behavior, consideration for the workersí compensation. Early identification of interests of others, community involvement, these difficulties can help staff and patients helping others, and participating in organized create a more effective treatment plan. Patients who are employed often are reluctant A patientís spirituality can be an important to enter residential treatment or take the time treatment resource, and persons recovering to become stabilized on medication; however, from addiction often experience increased most of these patients would take medical or interest in the spiritual aspects of their lives. A physi- who remained in recovery for 5 years credited cianís note recommending time off work for religion or spirituality as one factor in this out- some period might help, but it should be on let- come. Staff should assess patientsí connections terhead that does not reference drug treatment. M ilitary or other service history Miller (1998) found a lack of research explor- ing the association between spirituality and A patientís military or other service history can addiction recovery but concluded that spiritual highlight valuable areas in treatment planning. If the former, by Muffler and colleagues (1992), individuals treatment providers can help patients identify with a high degree of spiritual motivation to Initial Screening, Adm ission Procedures, and Assessm ent Techniques 59 recover reported that treatment programs that Patientsí ability to m anage included spiritual guidance or counseling were m oney more likely to produce positive outcomes than programs that did not. Financial status and money manage- ment skills should be assessed to help patients understand their fiscal strengths and weakness- Sexual orientation and es as they become stabilized. Identifying existing should be accessible to all groups, and pro- recreational and leisure time preferences and grams providing ancillary services should be gaining exposure to new ones can be significant sensitive to the special needs of all patients steps in developing a recovery-oriented lifestyle. Exam ple of Standard Consent to Opioid M aintenance Treatm ent Consent to Participation in Opioid Pharm acotherapy Treatm ent Patient’s Name: ________________________________ Date: _________________________ I hereby authorize and give voluntary consent to the Division and its medical personnel to dispense and administer opioid pharmacotherapy (including methadone or buprenorphine) as part of the treatment of my addiction to opioid drugs. Treatment procedures have been explained to me, and I understand that this will involve my taking the prescribed opioid drug at the schedule determined by the program physician, or his/her designee, in accordance with Federal and State regulations. It has been explained that, like all other prescription medications, opioid treatment medications can be harmful if not taken as prescribed. I further understand that opioid treatment medications produce dependence and, like most other medications, may produce side effects. Possible side effects, as well as alternative treatments and their risks and benefits, have been explained to me. I understand that it is important for me to inform any medical provider who may treat me for any medical problem that I am enrolled in an opioid treatment program so that the provider is aware of all the medications I am taking, can provide the best possible care, and can avoid prescribing medications that might affect my opioid pharmacotherapy or my chances of successful recovery from addiction. I understand that I may withdraw voluntarily from this treatment program and discontinue the use of the medications prescribed at any time. Should I choose this option, I understand I will be offered medically supervised tapering. For Female Patients of Childbearing Age: There is no evidence that methadone pharmaco- therapy is harmful during pregnancy. If I am or become pregnant, I understand that I should tell my medical provider right away so that I can receive appropriate care and referrals. I under- stand that there are ways to maximize the healthy course of my pregnancy while I am in opioid pharmacotherapy. More limited coverage is provided on the opioid antagonist naltrexone, which ChapterÖChapter… is not used widely for opioid addiction treatment in the United States. Methadone maintenance treatment has veniam quis W ithdrawal the longest successful track record in patients addicted to opioids for Dolore eu more than a year and has been shown to control withdrawal symptoms, fugiat nullaTake-Home stabilize physiologic processes, and improve functionality. If a never life threatening, but it can produce dis- clear history of opioid abuse or addiction comfort severe enough to warrant urgent inter- exists but a person currently is not addicted, vention. Detoxification might be abuse, and detoxification alone may yield only attempted with applicants who have a shorter short-term benefits. Therefore, ï Applicants who cannot attend treatment when detoxification from short-acting opioids is sessions regularly, especially for medication provided, the consensus panel recommends dosing (unless a clinical exception can be linkage to ongoing psychosocial treatment, with obtained [see chapter 7]); this requirement is or without additional maintenance therapy less of a hindrance for patients receiving with an opioid antagonist such as naltrexone. Access and easy transfer to this care should remain available as part of any In addition, people who are opioid addicted detoxification program. Inclusion rather than ing such as daily BreathalyzerJ tests, ongoing exclusion should be the guiding principle. The stages of Observed dosing is the only way to ensure that naltrexone pharmacotherapy may differ. Regardless of the medication sometimes by requir- used, safety is key during the induction stage. Administration of the first dose ounces of liquid in which an appropriate dose also should await a physical assessment to rule of medication is dissolved. For buprenorphine, out any acute, life-threatening condition that a sublingual tablet should be observed to have opioids might mask or worsen (see chapter 4 dissolved completely under the tongue. If same-day and from long-acting opioids, such as dosing adjustments must be made, patients methadone, for at least 10 days before begin- should wait 2 to 4 more hours after the addi- ning the medication to prevent potentially tional dosing, for further evaluation when peak severe withdrawal symptoms (OíConnor and effects are achieved. This observation is particu- such as benzodiazepines or alcohol should be larly important for patients at higher risk of ruled out before induction to minimize the overdose, including those naive to methadone, likelihood of oversedation with the first dose. Naltrexone of medication accumulate in body tissues (see typically is prescribed without observed dosing, below), the effects begin to last longer. Initial dosing should be followed to look at using family members to ensure that by dosage increases over subsequent days until patients take their medication (Fals-Stewart withdrawal symptoms are suppressed at the and OíFarrell 2003). The first dose of any opioid tissues, including the liver, from which their treatment medication should be lower if a slow release keeps blood levels of medication patientís opioid tolerance is believed to be low, steady between doses. It is important for physi- the history of opioid use is uncertain, or no cians, staff members, and patients to under- signs of opioid withdrawal are evident. Some stand that doses of medication are eliminated former patients who have been released from more quickly from the bloodstream and medi- incarceration or are pregnant and are being cation effects wear off sooner than might be readmitted because they have a history of expected until sufficient levels are attained in addiction might have lost their tolerance. During induction, even without dosage of tolerance should be considered for any increases, each successive dose adds to what is patient who has abstained from opioids for present already in tissues until steady state is more than 5 days. The blood remains fairly steady because that drugís amount of opioid abuse estimated by patients rate of intake equals the rate of its breakdown usually gives only a rough idea of their toler- and excretion. Approximately four to five patient estimates of dollars spent per day on half-life times are needed to establish a steady opioids. For example, because transferred from methadone has a half-life of 24 to 36 hours, its other treatment pro- steady stateóthe time at which a relatively grams should start constant blood level should remain present in with medication the bodyóis achieved in 5 to 7. However, dosages identical to those prescribed at individuals may differ significantly in how long principle ìstart it takes to achieve steady state. Dosage adjustments Patients should stay on a given dosage for a low and go slowî in the first week of reasonable period before deciding how it will treatment should be ìhold. Patients who effects of a medica- wake up sick during the first few days of opioid tion last. In contrast, patients who wake up sick for pharmacotherapy because of concerns after the first week of treatmentówhen tissue about its cardiovascular effects. Outpatient programs are its extended duration of action can result in limited in this approach because patients can toxic blood levels leading to fatal overdose. W hereas 60 mg of Sunjic 2000), it is important to adjust methadone per day may be adequate for some methadone dosage carefully until stabilization patients, it has been reported that some and tolerance are established.
Respiratory Illness Asthma is a very old disease described in the ancient literature order 80 mg tadapox visa erectile dysfunction pump side effects. The only progress we have made to date with this disease is to give drugs to soothe the symptoms order 80 mg tadapox with amex injections for erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery. One tries to cough them up buy tadapox 80 mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction statistics india, of course, but in our misguided effort to be polite we teach children to swallow anything they cough up! Some swallowing is inevitable and the young worms are back in the stomach, this time to set up their housekeeping in the intestine. Some never leave the stomach, causing children stomach aches and, of course, a large entourage of bacteria which, in turn, have their viruses. Most cases of Ascaris infestation also show Bacteroides fragilis bacteria which, in turn, carry the Coxsackie viruses (brain viruses). Whether or not these bacteria or viruses will thrive in you depends on whether you make a good home for them, namely have low immunity in some organ. The preferred organs for Bacteroides are liver and brain (brain tumors always show Bacteroides). The preferred organs for Coxsackie viruses appear to be tooth abscesses and brain. Not everybody with Ascaris develops asthma, even though they always go through a lung stage. That innocent cough of early childhood should not be ne- glected, as simply “croup. Kill their Ascaris with a zapper and keep it up daily or put parasite killing herbs in their food. Asthma sufferers become allergic to many air pollutants such as pollen, animal dander, smoke. The production of histamine in the lungs and the vast interconnectedness of histamine to allergies has been well studied scientifically. Then wash your hands and fingernails with grain alcohol, and let no more filth past your lips. For children wash hands before eating anything, even between meals; keep fingernails short. This could lead to massive infection, the kind that could result not only in asthma but seizures. Use cardboard, newspaper or anything that you can afford to throw away with the mess. If there is an asthmatic in your family, the whole family should be treated for Ascaris with a zapper or with the herbal parasiticides. Even after everybody including the pets have been treated, pets should not be allowed in the bedroom of the asth- matic person. It is also an al- lergic reaction, to the pet and to other inhaled bits of matter. Smoke of any kind, fragrance and chemicals of any kind, all household cleaners, polishes, and so forth should be removed. Install central air conditioning if possible, with maxi- mum filtering (but never with chemicals added to the filter and never with a fiberglass filter) at the furnace. The best place to recover is outdoors away from trees and bushes or indoors with total pollution-free air conditioning (free of asbestos, formaldehyde, arsenic, fiberglass, pet dander). When you suddenly need them, try to identify your source of reinfection or allergens. She was started on the herbal parasite program after killing Ascaris, Bacteroides and Coxsackie viruses with a frequency generator. She was immediately improved after cleaning up these sources and canceled her future appointment. Her lungs were full of benzalkonium (toothpaste), arsenic (ant poison under kitchen sink), zirconium (deodorant), and nickel from tooth metal. She had Ascaris and Naegleria, mycoplasma, Endolimax and the intestinal fluke in her lungs! She coughed up blood, after her doctor had diagnosed bronchiestasis recently, meaning her lungs were not capable of sweeping out the daily refuse we all breathe in. Going onto homeopathic medicine for stuffiness helped her avoid some hospital visits. It took several months (5 visits) to track her arsenic source to the bedroom car- pets (stain resistance! After steam cleaning it herself and doing a liver cleanse (after first killing parasites) she was amazed at her improvement. She had not been to the hospital in a month and was only using inhalers preventively. Her lungs had beryllium (coal oil) and asbestos, and two parasites, Paragonimus (lung fluke) and Ascaris. She got rid of the attacks but her cough and pneumonia bouts will continue until she moves from that house. Brett Wilsey, 70, was congested most of the time, had chronic sinus problems, was getting allergy shots for dust and mold, and was on several inhalers for his asthma plus emphysema. His blood test showed high “total carbon dioxide” or “carbonate” showing that his air exchange was not good. His eosinophil count was high, as is the rule for asthmatics since they all have Ascaris worms. He was toxic with barium and hafnium (which were traced to his dentures) nickel, tin, rhenium. He was now down to one puff of inhaler instead of two, only four times a day instead of hourly. Then the lead in his water was found and traced to a single “sweated” joint in the pipes. He was started on food grade hydrogen peroxide, working up a drop at a time; now his cough became “productive”, he was coughing up a lot. She was toxic with antimony although she used no eye makeup and europium, tantalum, and gadolinium from dental metal. She killed her intestinal flukes (in the intestine) and Ascaris in her lungs and was not seen for half a year. The three young children and herself were on inhalers, nose sprays, cough syrups and antibiotics. Lewis, age 8, was a slight, nervous boy; he had been off wheat and milk for many years due to intolerance. Irwin, age 5, seldom went with the family due to his frequent stomach aches and the fact he could vomit without notice.
Next generic 80 mg tadapox visa impotence 27 years old, his therapist suggests that Jeremy put the ﬁrst of these thoughts on trial using a worksheet (later on buy 80mg tadapox otc erectile dysfunction drugs medicare, they address his other malicious thought) order tadapox 80mg amex erectile dysfunction treatment following radical prostatectomy. As you can see in Worksheet 6-2, Jeremy writes down the malicious thought ﬁrst and then in one column defends the thought by listing all the reasons, logic, and evidence he can muster to support the case that the thought is true. In the other column, Jeremy attempts to prosecute the thought by demonstrating that it’s false. Worksheet 6-2 Jeremy’s Thought on Trial Worksheet Accused thought: I couldn’t stand to see the look of repulsion on her face. I’ve seen the look of shock on people’s My family seems to have gotten faces before. After one surgery, a physical therapist made a comment that my burns were permanently deforming and I’d just have to learn to live with them. So far, this case is going very well for the defense and very poorly for the prosecution. Thus, Jeremy remains quite convinced that his thought is a true reﬂection of reality; it’s just the way things are. The therapist tells him he’s made a good start but asks him to consider the Prosecutor’s Investigative Questions in Worksheet 6-3 and write down his reﬂections on those questions (see Worksheet 6-4). Do I know of friends or acquaintances who have experienced similar events but for whom this thought wouldn’t apply? Worksheet 6-4 Jeremy’s Reﬂections These questions are a little difﬁcult to contemplate. Well, I guess I would really dislike seeing repulsion on her face, but I could probably “stand it. And I suppose I’ve seen attractive women who are with guys who have substantial disabilities like morbid obesity, missing limbs, and so on. I was in that burn support group, and I admit there were some people who had nice relationships after they’d been burned. And I guess the thought is doing me more harm than good because it keeps me from ever considering a relationship. After Jeremy reﬂects on the list of Prosecutor Investigative Questions, his therapist advises him to take another look at his Thoughts on Trial Worksheet and try to add more evidence and logic to his case (see Worksheet 6-5). Worksheet 6-5 Jeremy’s Revised Thought on Trial Worksheet Accused thought: I couldn’t stand to see the look of repulsion on her face. Actually, there are a few people I know who haven’t been shocked or repulsed by my scars. I’ve seen the look of shock on people’s My family seems to have gotten faces before. If they can, it’s certainly possible that others could do the same — especially if they cared about me. I can remember my mother crying when Just because my mother cried she saw how badly I was burned. Chapter 6: Indicting and Rehabilitating Thoughts 81 Defending the Thought Prosecuting the Thought After one surgery, a physical therapist The physical therapist was right in made a comment that my burns were that I do have to live with this. But permanently deforming and I’d just have that doesn’t mean I can’t have a to learn to live with them. Sometimes when I go for a checkup, I My burns are noticeable; it doesn’t hear people talking about me. If someone really likes and cares about me, she ought to be able to look past my scars. At this point, Jeremy carefully reviews the case presented in his Revised Thought on Trial Worksheet. He and his therapist agree to work on a replacement thought for his most malicious thought (see the sec- tion “After the Verdict: Replacing and Rehabilitating Your Thoughts” later in this chapter). After he creates the ﬁrst replacement though, he continues putting his other malicious thoughts on trial and replacing them, one at a time. Putting your thoughts on trial You guessed it; it’s your turn to visit Thought Court. Don’t be concerned if you struggle in your initial attempts; this important exercise takes practice. Pay attention to your body’s signals and write them down whenever you feel some- thing unpleasant. Refer to the Daily Unpleasant Emotions Checklist in Chapter 4 for help ﬁnding the right feeling words. Rate your feeling on a scale of intensity from 1 (almost undetectable) to 100 (maximal). Ask yourself what was going on when you started noticing your emotions and your body’s signals. The corresponding event can be something happening in your world, but an event can also be in the form of a thought or image that runs through your mind. Be concrete and speciﬁc; don’t write something overly general such as “I hate my work. Refer to The Thought Query Quiz in Chapter 4 if you experience any difﬁculty ﬁguring out your thoughts about the event. Review your thoughts and write down the thought or thoughts that evoke the great- est amount of emotion — your most malicious thoughts. Worksheet 6-6 My Thought Tracker Feelings & Sensations Corresponding Events Thoughts/Interpretations (Rated 1–100) Chapter 6: Indicting and Rehabilitating Thoughts 83 My most malicious thoughts: 1. In time, you’re likely to start changing the way you think and, therefore, the way you feel. Take a malicious thought and consider the Prosecutor’s Investigative Questions in Worksheet 6-3. After you put one thought on trial using the instructions that follow, proceed to put other malicious thoughts through the same process. In Worksheet 6-8, designate one of your most malicious thoughts as the accused thought and write it down. In the left-hand column, write all the reasons, evidence, and logic that support the truth of your accused thought. In the right-hand column, write refutations of all the reasons, evidence, and logic presented by the defense. After all, you need to use the Thought Court method numerous times to feel the full beneﬁt. After you complete the Thought Court process, decide for yourself whether or not your thought is guilty of causing you unneeded emotional distress such as anxiety, depression, or other difﬁcult feelings. Even if you conclude that your thought has some grain of truth, you’re likely to discover that it’s highly suspect of causing you more harm than good. In Thought Court, you don’t judge your thought guilty only on the basis of “beyond a reason- able doubt. Reviewing more Thought Court cases To help you understand Thought Court better, this section contains a few more examples. Because the Thought Tracker also appears in Chapters 4 and 5, we start with the accused thought here, which comes from the most malicious thoughts at the end of a Thought Tracker (see “Putting your thoughts on trial”).