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Gait analysis generic tegretol 200mg amex muscle relaxant used in dentistry, including video with eye acupuncture on activity of daily living and upper limb footage order tegretol 100mg with mastercard muscle relaxant lorazepam, showed signifcant decreases in dyskinesia’s buy 100mg tegretol with amex muscle relaxant list by strength, as well as movement function in patients with ischemic stroke. The patient now cases with ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to occupa- ambulates indoors without assistive device and in the community tional therapy combined with eye acupuncture group (treatment with a rollator, reporting reduced fatigue and joint pain improved group) and occupational therapy group (control group), each from 8/10 to 4/10. Patients in treatment group received occu- treatment and will begin psychotherapy to address the psycholog- pational therapy and eye acupuncture, patients in control group ical component of her diagnosis. This coincided with a the affected side, especially in the upper limb movement function. Methods: Thirty-one The support in the feld of inclusive education has different aspects subacute stroke patients with severe to moderate upper extremity in relation to rehabilitation. Secondary outcome was the physical domain of the release, resources by using the artistic expression as a means for Stoke Impact Scale version 3. It refers to multimodal forms of expressions bined with functional task practice may be a promising approach for in combining them to enhance emotional enrichment by overcoming subacute patients with stroke. On the other hand it enables in a playful way to activate physical competences by overcoming blockages in move- ments. Gesundheitsförderung Multiple Sclerosis – an Integrative Stress Management und Prävention durch Künstlerische Therapien. Stress can impact on both functional and pathological Subacute Stroke Patients markers of disease activity/progression. Materials & bilitation Methods: Twenty patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation after *Z. Intervention was a structured, progressive, physiologically based, therapist- Introduction/Background: Children from the Third Affliated Hos- supervised, in-patient program of 90-minute treatment sessions a pital of Jiamusi University, the Prevention and Treatment Centre day, fve days a week for 4 weeks designed to enhance fexibility, of Cerebral Palsy of Heilongjiang Province were admitted for the strength, balance and gait endurance. Progressions included in- application status researchof assistive devices in children rehabili- creasing the intensity and complexity of the exercise. Material and Methods: 2,469 children treated in Third Af- in control group participated in individual physiotherapy, on a 1 fliated Hospital of Jiamusi University during 2008 ~2012 were therapist to 1 subject ratio, for the same amount of time as in- admitted, including 1,722 children with physical impairment as tervention group. Results: Both intervention and control groups showed signif- aids include 41% educational aids and 5. Conclusion: The utilization ratio of some assistive devices as in all outcome measures, respectively. There were no signifcant walker, wheelchair should be improved, and the consciousness of between group differences in the outcome measure before and af- assistive devices using should be improved. Conclusions: These fndings suggested that task oriented circuit training was as effective as conventional individu- al physiotherapy for inpatient rehabilitation on the recovery of mo- tor control, balance, walking ability and activities of daily living in D. Evaluation tests were performed initially, af- habilitation tend to emphasize a unilateral perspective on need, ter 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Among that Motricity index of trunk, K- effective knowledge, education and real inclusion. There was no signifcant difference of improvement according “dependency” have simple uncontested meanings. Conclusion: This J Rehabil Med Suppl 54 E-Posters 465 “mutual care approach” emphases on the carer-patient dynam- *R. Conclusion: Professional training for health and on self-evaluation after the clinical practicum experience. Material and Methods: Forty-three sen- of strong, healthy relationships and community belonging, thereby ior occupational therapy students at A University participated in being regarded as a cornerstone in facilitating education, health thisstudy. Results: The scores from 27 participants were included Training with Trunk Restraint on Functional Abilities in in the fnal analyses. On repeated 1 2 3 measures analysis of variance, there were no signifcant differ- *A. It has been proposed that increase in Factor 1 scores in the post- compared to pre-practicum clinical detectable and meaningful change has to exceed minimal (p=0. We included randomized controlled trials, com- led to improved self-evaluation on “Learning from Supervisor. Seven different clinical measures have been used to base measure changes in functional abilities. References: 1) Michaelsen physiatrist’s involvement in rehabilitative management on stroke S. The purpose of the pre- with trunk restraint on arm recovery in stroke: randomized con- sent study was to determine the impact of involvement of board- trol trial. Materials and Methods: This induced therapy with trunk restraint to improve poststroke reach to study is a retrospective cohort study. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, patient at a rehabilitation ward who were registered in the Japan 26, 247–255. Constraint-induced therapy with trunk restraint for total of 2,873 patients were eligible after applying exclusion cri- improving functional outcomes and trunk-arm control after stroke: teria. Outcomes were compared with the use of propensity scores a randomized controlled trial. A generalized estimation equation was used to account for clustering of patients within hospitals. Results: Responsible physicians of 42% stroke patients were justability Related To Clinical Practica in Occupational board-certifcated physiatrist. After adjusted with ing, computer use, writing and facial hygiene (shaving-brushing amount of exercise, we found similar result. In addition, patients with board-certifcated physiatrist satisfed and improve his quality of life. The involvement of the performed independent exercise more than those without them quadriplegic patient to perform daily activities also contribute to (p<0. Conclusions: The data suggests that board-certifcated maintaining ftness, strengthening the musculature, improving bal- physiatrist is associated with good functional recovery in stroke ance in sitting position and coordination of movement. The purpose of this study was to indicate the possibility of maintain- Introduction: The purpose of the current study is to describe the ing gait ability through physical therapy for improving fexed and methods in which patients with cerebral damage can be involved asymmetric posture in a single patient. He could walk independently indoors; how- patients (10 males and 2 females, range of age 25-42 y. He had cerebral damage and concomitant hemiplegia, participated in the forward fexion of the trunk and scoliosis. To improve the use of the hemiplegic upper limb we used wireless motion sensors consisting of a triaxial accelerometer, tri- board games, which contained small cubes (dimensions: 4 cm * 2 axial gyroscope, and triaxial magnetometer to evaluate gait abil- cm) and cylinders. The wireless motion sensors were attached to fve body parts: per week, 45 minutes per session, under the supervision of the head (torus occipitalis), neck (7th cervical vertebra), pelvic (2nd responsable occupational therapist. The patient walked 3m straight plegic patients in board games contributed to the improvement of and turned back at self-selected speed before and after physical sensory and motor skills (initial modifed Barthel index 65, post therapy. The physical therapist intervened in trunk and hip joint program modifed Barthel index 85) which retrieved their involve- mobility to improve fexed and asymmetric posture as a treatment ment in simple daily activities. Informed consent was obtained from the pa- games promoted the safe use of the upper limb during various tient and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of our daily activities or spontaneous tasks. Result: After physical therapy, the patient’s are important tools in re-training sensory and motor function of the posture became extended and symmetrical compared with that upper limb in patients with cerebral damage and improve partici- before physical therapy. As a result of having analyzed wireless pation in daily and recreational activities. They also promote pro- motion sensors, swing phase was longer and turning movement ductivity, participation in self-care activities and entertainment.
Case 3: such as metastatic cancer purchase tegretol 400mg line yellow round muscle relaxant pill, multiple myeloma and hyperparathy- This 43 year old man presented with right hemiparesis and confu- roidism cheap 200mg tegretol amex spasms under left breastbone. Information was obtained from hospital medical records and increased incidence of residual neurological impairments in sur- a review of patients’ blood results on admission discount tegretol 400 mg free shipping muscle relaxant used during surgery. Of these terial and Methods: The subjects walked barefoot on a sheet-style only 3 (7. Then we calculated the mean plantar pressure and con- caemia was detected (11%) fewer than 8% were tested in suffcient tact area, and we obtained the ratio of the value of the affected side detail to determine its cause. This audit demonstrates the need for (i) greater awareness of of the ratio was 61. Conclusion: The therapy of botuli- num toxin alleviated lower limb spasticity and increased the range Stroke Patients of motion in the ankle joints, possibly thereby making it easier for *N. Romero-Culler-2 the sole of the foot to contact the ground during the stance phase of es1, G. These prognostic in Foot Drop Patients: Pilot Study factors are evaluated by clinical test. Purpose: Establish a model that predicts the functional outcome of the hand based on clini- *P. Methods: Gait velocity was evaluated by Cyberglove glove Results: 32 evaluated patients, 5 measured while subjects randomly walked either with or without excluded for lack of monitoring, 6 exitus and 3 new stroke. Tendency towards statistical signifcance: stroke type, fve patients were left hemiparesis with mean age (range) of 43. Only swing and Evaluation of Plantar Pressures and Contact Areas Dur- stance time of the affected leg were signifcantly changedat p<0. Subjects The subjects were 12 post-stroke hemiplegic patients who were capable of walk- Yamada1, S. Although studies about limbs coordination Background and Objective: Driving is an important activity of have been dedicated to the evaluation of upper limbs, neurophysi- daily living. However, the ability to drive is often affected after ological fndings indicate that coordination of lower limbs could acquired brain injury. In recent studies, obstacle crossing have become a the fundamental region of neural activity in healthy subjects, relatively novel task for coordination in stroke patients. Asymmet- which is believed to be necessary for driving ability and to ex- rical lower limb functions owing to muscle weakness and impaired amine the effect of brain injury on driving safety. Patients and movement control in hemiparetic patients may lead to different Methods: Experimental studies were performed on 15 healthy performance of obstacle crossing. However, there are few stud- right-handed adults and 17 patients (7 vascular accidents and 10 ies focus on interlimb and intralimb coordination when obstacle traumatic brain injury). The participants were asked to drive in the crossing in patients with subcortical stroke. During driving, changes in oxy-Hb levels were study was to investigate the interlimb and intralimb coordination measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy at 34 sites in bilateral lower limbs when obstacles crossing in patients with including both hemispheres. Material and Methods: The current study will healthy subjects, neuronal activity was signifcantly increased in recruit 20 age-matched healthy controls to provide normal base- the right frontal lobe, right parietal lobe, right temporal lobe, and line elderly gait data. Subcortical stroke was diagnosed by physia- left temporal lobe, Patients who resumed driving showed similar trists. However, the patients perimental tasks included 1) walking task, and 2) obstacle crossing who could not resume driving showed no cortical activations near task. Conclusion: From the above, and in light of previous collected and post processed via the Cortex. Both kinematic and studies, it can be suggested that while the right side is dominant, analog (kinetic and electromyography) data will be inputted into the frontal lobes, parietal lobes, and temporal lobes of both the OrthoTrak 6. Results: Smaller hip fexion/extension/ right and left cerebral hemispheres are involved during automo- range, knee fexion/extension/range, and ankle dorsifexion/range bile driving. Based on this result, the cerebral hemodynamics of were found in the subcortical stroke group in leading limb during individuals with brain damage were examined during driving, and obstacle crossing with unaffected leading limb. Virtual reality envi- ronments allow the exploration of spatial navigation in this popu- lation, even for patients with motor or sensory disorders. The use of these stimuli notably involves attentional and 1 2 Clinic for Rehabilitation Dr M. Based on the results of our and a software-familiarization, all subjects were tested without audi- many other studies, the largest number of spinal cord injuries is tory stimuli, with a sonar effect or periodic random sounds in a caused by traffc accidents and falls from heights. The results showed that contextual auditory stimuli improved pa- Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 419 patients ad- tient performance more than the control group (with “sonar ef- mited to the Clinic for Rehabilitation Dr M. Contextual stimuli were most helpful for patients with was analyzed for each month for a period of 10 years. Results: The Conclusion: These results suggest that additional stimuli in virtual average age of patients in this study was 63. Of the total reality may be helpful in the assessment and rehabilitation of pa- number of patients, 310 (74. The most common causes of non- traumatic spinal cord injuries were: tumors in 57 (38. At baseline, neurological examination found conscious- summer months caused by falls from a height in the performance ness disturbance (semicoma), severe tetraparesis, bilateral severe sen- of agricultural and construction work, traffc accidents by car and sory defcits, severe dysarthria, moderate facial palsy, and pseudobul- motorcycle and jumps into the water. Results: Patient started the conventional stroke rehabilitation program 2 days after onset. At dis- Patients with Lower Limb Spasticity charge of our hospital, neurological examination showed moderate left hemiparesis, mild right hemiparesis, severe sensory defcits on *S. Since his Jeremic1 right hemiparesis was mild, he could roll over, sit, and stand up with 1Clinic for Rehabilitation Dr M. There eral muscle weakness, more noticeable on the right limbs and anal was signifcant decrease in average value of walking speed before incontinence. Therefore, we may suggest that prim- were the positivity to botulinum toxin type B in the blood sample. He also did physical therapy exercises for stimulation, multiplex sclerosis, spasticity. Dis- Functional Outcome in Patient with Simultaneous Bilat- cussion: Wound botulism is a rare disorder, usually associated with eral Thalamic Hemorrhage: a Case Report traumatic injuries, surgical wound infections and infections due to *Y. Mur- Introduction: Spinal cord injuries have as chronic result tetraple- 9 10 11 12 13 gia (affecting both arms and legs) or a paraplegia (affecting legs gia , M. One of the most important rehabili- tation problem for the paraplegic patients is to get independence 1Maggiore della Carità University Hospital, Novara, 2Valduce of movement, in hospital and at home, from the wheel chair to Hospital - Villa Beretta, Costamasnaga, 3University of Foggia, daily living activities. Simple device for this type of mobility, wich Foggia, 4University of Verona, Verona, 5Ospedale di Circolo - induces good psychological effect must be introduced in current Fondazione Macchi University Hospital, Varese, 6MultiMedica rehabilitation activities. Results: Using this type of transfer device – sim- studies able to identify its correlation with disability, but different ple, low-cost and easy to use by the paraplegic patients with good papers demonstrated the effcacy of spasticity treatment in func- psychological impact is more effective that the high-tech devices tional improvements. Conclussions: One of the goals in rehabilitation tions of the patient, perhaps affecting body ownership. In this case, of paraplegis patients is to achieve mobility in wheelchair and to its impact might be better highlighted by patient-reported outcome realize easy transfer from the wheelchair to daily living activities. This type of immune-mediated response is classical- diagnosis of brachial plexus lesion.
Conclusion: Points of novelty 1 2 1 1 are that the architectural structure of the rehabilitation unit has K tegretol 200 mg muscle relaxant for back pain. This is a traumatic procedure with important can be followed immediately after amputation toward the protesi- functional and psychological sequelae signifcantly infuencing the zation discount 400 mg tegretol with visa spasms while pregnant. A Falls and Static Balance Control in Transfemoral Ampu- total of 2 tegretol 400mg free shipping quadricep spasms,358 concepts were identifed. The linked categories tees nd included 29 2 level categories in the domain of body function, *S. They are a main source of injury, decline in func- and was similar across the six countries. Approximately half of the individuals with a be used as a framework to communicate between rehabilitation lower limb amputation experience at least one fall each year. The putee rehabilitation working in different health care settings were aim of this study was to evaluate static balance in fallers and non- similar across the six countries. Material and Methods: We enrolled 14 unilateral transfemoral amputees attending to an outpatient re- habilitation medicine department. Other vari- Sucessfull Prothetization: Is It Possible after 42 Years ables like age, body-mass index, gender, years since amputation, Since Hip Desarticulation? Results: Half of our subjects experienced at least one fall in the Diagnosis: Male, 55 years old, with a left hip desarticulation. No signifcant differences were observed between the scription: At the age of 13, after a knee infectious disease that fallers and non-fallers groups in terms of age, gender, body-mass progressed to gangrene, the patient was submitted to a left hip de- index, time since amputation, cause of amputation, comorbidities sarticulation. He worked in a sales-counter company, where he demonstrated good overall accuracy in detecting participants with walked with the help of two crutches. He always refused a new prosthesis until February diction in individuals with transfemoral amputation. After only 15 days of training he was Mobility in Persons with Lower Extrimity able to walk without or just with one crutch. Vide- and universal language for rehabilitation professionals across the os with activities performed with prosthesis will be presented. As a result of walking with crutches, muscu- mobility important to patients with lower limb amputation from loskeletal pathology involving the joints of the upper limbs and an expert’s point of view and quantify these problems using the even the contralateral hip was expected. Methods: An electronic or paper survey was done across signifcantly improved the quality of life and functional independ- six countries targeting expert clinicians involved in pre and post ence. Conclusion: Even after many years without a prosthesis, the amputation care including medical, nursing, physiotherapist, oc- advanced components including socket, hidraulic hip and various cupational therapist, prosthetics, social worker, psychologist and tipes of knee and feet enhanced the suspension, the prosthetic ac- ceptance and overall mobility. Trauma (road traffc ac- Community-Dwelling Patients with Lower-Limb Ampu- cidents, crush injury) was the most common cause of amputation tation (62. Introduction/Background: Individuals with a lower-limb amputa- Transtibial and transradial was the most common level of ampu- tion face a number of challenges re-integrating into the commu- tation in lower and upper limb respectively. Conclusions: Trau- nity, including maintenance of a healthy level of physical activity ma still remains the leading cause of amputation in developing while simultaneously managing the risk of falling. Younger age group is increasingly to be at a particularly high risk of falls in the community, with fall affected posing a serious concern for health services. However, little is known about non- Civilian, Etiology, Pakistan, Trauma Amputation. The purpose of this study Importance of Tying the Sciatic Nerve in Above Knee was to describe self-perceived balance confdence and the amount/ Amputation to Prevent Neuroma Formation intensity of ambulation among community-dwelling patients with a unilateral lower-limb amputation who did not report a fall in the *A. In this were stratifed as low (<3,000 steps/d) or high (>2,999 steps/d) ac- study we compared neuroma formation after tying the sciatic nerve tivity groups. Results: Balance confdence was signifcantly lower to leaving its cut end open in patients who undergo above knee am- among the low activity group (74. This suggests that ‘non-fallers’ may include a subgroup of 90 patients who underwent above knee amputation. In half of that erroneously presents as a low risk group due to a balance con- these patients, cut end of sciatic nerve was left open and in other fdence-related sedentary lifestyle. Neuroma formation in the stump was assessed with lower-limb amputation, the results of this study emphasize one year after surgery. This assessment was done by measuring the the importance of contextualizing apparent fall risk relative to diameter of sciatic nerve ending using sonogram. Such an approach would distinguish ameter was measured bilaterally at the same level, and the value of patients who are truly at low risk of falling due to high ambulatory the normal limb was taken as control. Results: Out of 45 patients capacity versus those that may be at an elevated fall risk which re- who underwent tying of sciatic nerve, only 10 patients developed mains undetected due to their errant inclusion in a low risk group. On the other hand, 45 patients in whom the cut end was and/or physical activity intervention strategies for the latter group. We thus conclude, it is always wise to tie the cut end of sciatic nerve in Major Limb Amputations among Civilian Population at above knee amputation to prevent neuroma formation. Khan2 graphic evaluation of the sciatic nerve in patients with lower-limb 1 2 amputations. García 1Universitary General Hospital Foundation Jiménez Díaz, 2Uni- ity prosthetic services are not available to majority of the popula- tion. Material and Methods: A Objective: To analyze which factors infuence in Houghton Scale cross-sectional study carried out in the amputee clinic of Armed score in patients with an unilateral transtibial amputation. Design: Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (July 2007 to Decem- A retrospective study in unilateral transtibial amputee in Physi- ber 2013). Consecutive sampling technique was used and 146 cal Medicine and Rehabilitation Department at a General Hospital individuals were enrolled. Material and Methods: We collect 64 with one or more limb amputations due to any cause, reporting for patients and apply Houghton scale. Data were collected from med- the frst time for provision of prosthesis, were registered on ini- ical history in Microsoft Excel database (age and gender, lower tial visit after informed consent. Demographic data including age, limb amputee, etiology, date, prosthetics prescription date, score gender and ethnicity based on provinces and clinical data compris- in Houghton Scale, external insertion, internal insertion, foot, ing; level, side and cause of amputation were recorded. The mean days from amputation to try like India but rarely seen in developed world. Objective: To observe overall improvement pattern The 55% of patients had a score equal or less than 9 points in fnal of plantar foot ulcer after doing Total Contact Casting; 2) to look score in Houghton Scale. In multivariate analysis and linear re- antibiotics and orthosis but no improvement. Conclusions: The younger is the patient we assess, the better is the Grossly deformed foot. Methodology: After taking institutional eth- result that we obtain (more than 9 points) and we can consider a ical committee clearance the patient fulflling the above criteria the satisfactory rehabilitation. Interestingly there was no difference noted in improve- infuence in the rehabilitation of the amputee. Local hyperoxia seems to in- duce vasoconstriction, reduce vasogenic post-traumatic swelling and accelerates ischemic injury repair.
Not to be Confused With: Passiflora caeulea purchase tegretol 200mg back spasms 8 weeks pregnant, Passiflora Wagner H effective 400mg tegretol spasms near sternum, Wiesenauer M purchase tegretol 400 mg line back spasms 38 weeks pregnant, Phytotherapie. Phytopharmaka und foetida or Passiflora edulis pflanzliche Homoopathika, Fischer-Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, New York 1995. Drink 2 to 3 times throughout the including among others isovitexin-2"-o-glucoside, schafto- day and one-half hour before bedtime. Sedative or spasmo- Anon, Phytotherapeutika: Nachgewiesene Wirkung, aber lytic effects could not be definitively proven. Hansel R, Pflanzliche Beruhigungsmittel Moglichkeiten und Unproven Uses: Passion Flower is used internally for Grenzen der Selbstmedikation. The herb is used externally for hemorrhoids and as a bath additive for Hansel R, Keller K, Rimpler H, Schneider G (Ed. No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction Loehdefink J, Kating H, (1974) Planta Med 25:101. Capsules — 400 mg Meier B, (1995) Passiflora incarnata - Portrait einer Liquid (alcohol free) — 1:1 Arzneipflanze. To make a rinse for the external treatment of hemorrhoids, put 20 gm Middleton E, Drzewiecki G, (1984) Biochem Pharmacol drug into 200 ml simmering water, strain and use when 33:3333. Deutsche Apotheker guaiene (20%), alpha-bulnesen (20%), beta-patchoulen (2%) Ztg 135:1811-1822. No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction Wagner H, Wiesenauer M, Phytotherapie. Phytopharmaka und with the proper administration of designated therapeutic pflanzliche Homoopathika. Flower and Fruit: The flowers, which are whitish and often have reddish marks, grow in terminal and axillary spikes. Pausinystalia yohimbe Leaves, Stem and Root: The plant is a pubescent, perennial See Yohimbe Bark herb, which grows from 60 to 90 cm high. Flower and Fruit: The flowers are 5 to 7 cm long, Production: Patchouli oil is extracted from the leaves of monosymmetrical and have a large golden-yellow standard. The flowers have lemon-yellow wings and a pure white Other Names: Putcha-Pat, Patchouly carina. After pollination, a with the proper administration of designated therapeutic meristem develops at the base of the ovary, from which the dosages. The Mode of Administration: As an enema, oil, bath additive and fruit is a 4 cm long by 1. For use in a bath, the recommended concentra- Leaves, Stem and Root: The peanut plant is an annual tion is 4 ml per 10 liters of water. Adults should bathe for 15 herbaceous 30 to 70 cm high legume, with glabrous, double to 20 minutes 2 to 3 times weekly. Habitat: Peanuts were originally indigenous to tropical and Storage: Protect from light in well-sealed and, if possible, sub-tropical South America. Oils from different deliveries should cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide not be stored together. Avichezer D, Arnon R, Differential reactivities of the Arachis hypogaea (peanut) and Vicia villosa B4 lectins with human Other Names: Arachis, Groundnuts, Monkey Nuts ovarian carcinoma cells grown either in vitro or in vivo xenograft model. Fatty oil: chief fatty acids include oleic acid, linolic acid and Codex Alimentarius Commission, Alinorm 79/17, Report 10th palmitin acid. When ripe, they are dark brown to black, glabrous and Codex Alimentarius Commission Alinorm 79/17, Report 10th about 0. The core has a number of carpels, which are large and Medicinal Parts: The medicinal part of the plant is the root. The ray florets are white and tinged purple Signs of irritation are possible in connection with overdoses beneath. The fruit has transpar- due to the mucous-membrane-stimulating character of the ent wings. The plant grows to about and as a powder, but no precise information is available. Production: Pellitory root is the root of Anacyclus Pellitory-of-the-Wall Pyrethrum. The Alkamides: including deca-2, 4-dien acid-isobutylamide, bracteoles are free and shorter than the calyx. The filaments anacycline, dehydroanacycline of the stamens are strangely jointed and so elastic that when they are touched before the flower has opened, they uncoil Lignans: including sesamine from meir rolled-up position and distribute the pollen. Leaves, Stem and Root: The plant is a perennial, heavily Tannins branched, bushy and leafy. The drug, which undersurface of the leaf ribs are pubescent with short, soft contains alkamides (pellitorin) and tannins had ajp inhibitory hairs. The uppersurface of the leaves is almost glabrous and ; t effect in vitro on cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase the ribs sunken. In tests on animals and humans, a local anesthetic effect was observed indicat- Production: Pellitory-of-the-Wall is the aerial part of Parie- ing ptery mandibular block with infiltration of the long taria officinalis. Pellitory is used Flavonoids: including among others kaempferol-, quercetin- internally as a tonic to aid digestion and as an insecticide. Tannins: presumably rosmaric acid Hegnauer R, Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen, Bde 1-11, Birkhauser Verlag Basel, Boston, Berlin 1962-1997. Pennyroyal oil (main component pulegone) has an antimicro- bial and insecticidal effect. There is no scientific proof of the Madaus G, Lehrbuch der Biologischen Arzneimittel, Bde 1-3, described effects. Medicinal Parts: The medicinal parts are the essential oil Acute poisonings are not to be feared in conjunction with the extracted from the fresh plant, the dried aerial parts and the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages of whole plant. The calyx is cylindrical-funnel- shaped, grooved and is-awned in the tubevThe lQwer tips are Pregnancy: In high doses, Pennyroyal has* been reported to awl-shaped, the upper ones shorter and wider. The corolla is violet, glabrous Severely acute poisonings have been observed following or downy. It has a tube, which suddenly widens in a sack- administration of 5 gm of the volatile oil. Vomiting, blood- like manner and has a slightly developed ring of hair as well pressure elevation, anesthetic-like paralysis and death as lobes. The nutlets are through respiratory failure have been reported following glossy brown. Cases of death have been described following Leaves, Stem and Root: Pennyroyal is a glabrous to downy misuse of the volatile oil to induce abortion. Daily Dosage: The average daily internal dose of the dried Habitat: The plant thrives in western, southern and central drug is 1 to 4 gm, taken 3 times daily. Pennyroyal is Europe, in Asia as far as Turkmenistan, Iran, in the Arab prepared as an infusion. Volatile oil: chief components: menthol (35-45%), menthone Lewin L, Gifte und Vergiftungen. It also has antiviral, antimicrobial, diuretic, cholagogic, carminative and mild sedative effect.