By M. Yespas. Notre Dame de Namur University.
Suzanne’s anger buy malegra fxt plus 160mg mastercard impotence psychological, anxiety generic 160 mg malegra fxt plus amex erectile dysfunction red pill, and overall functioning improved within nine months of our work to- gether order malegra fxt plus 160 mg free shipping impotence libido. The couple and I decided jointly that Harry’s emotional growth was crucial to enable the couple to reach more intimacy and growth. We agreed that I would see Harry individually for a while, because in the joint ses- sions Suzanne took over, judged, criticized, and became anxious in dealing with or hearing about her husband’s problems. Her self-centeredness and level of agitation (even though improved) got in the way of Harry’s work. Therefore, I worked with Harry alone to enhance his ability to feel his and other’s feelings, and to work through his defensive structure of splitting and cutting off. He utilized these defenses when issues were explored with which he did not want to deal. He needed the safety and one-on-one expe- rience to work through these issues and to enable him to develop a new bonding. For about eight months, we worked weekly, and Harry’s level of consciousness, ability to feel, and level of interaction improved remarkably (more differentiated and assertive). He invited his family to a session, and his brothers at- tended, which was a breakthrough for him. He was able to share his feel- ings about his passive behaviors, his siblings’ actions, and how these interactions affected his life. The brothers talked about their parents, their culture, and their individual perceptions of their life histories. Harry also discussed his realization about the effect of the Holocaust on his family of origin. At this point in the treatment, Harry requested that Suzanne come back to treatment so they could work on their "stuckness" concerning money and sex in the relationship. Money was an issue that Suzanne Integrative Healing Couples Therapy: A Search for the Self 223 refused to deal with because of the anxiety it caused within her and the re- running of the old tapes from her family of origin. We worked jointly for three months discussing issues related to money and sexuality. Suzanne was interested and committed to overcoming her anxieties and fears in dealing with money. She worked with Harry in pay- ing the bills, taking responsibility for paying some bills, where previously she had worked and kept the money she earned for herself. She started to learn about their investments and began to face her fears of "not having money"(cognitive behavioral strategies). At the same time, the couple’s sex- ual relationship became more satisfying to both. The couple decided to end treatment at this point because they felt they had attained the level of emo- tional and physical interaction they both wanted with each other. In addi- tion, they felt they had made essential changes in their interactions with their families of origin. As a result, both members were empowered to be emotional and financial equals sharing life in a more meaningful way. They were able to have romance and repair the past inherited from their families of origin (resolution and changing the repetition). Through successful fam- ily therapy, not only does the individual grow and differentiate, but the in- dividuals within the systems grow (see how relationships have changed within their nuclear family and family of origin), supporting the mainte- nance of the family structure and individuation of the members. As mentioned earlier (evaluation of the couple and their system), it is es- sential for a therapist to set a road map of treatment enabling the setting of goals and ways to reach them. The road map offers a written and visual tool to enable effective and efficient growth for the couple in relationship to their presenting and evolving issues. The road map evolves as the couple grows in treatment similarly to the way that roads progress in life’s jour- ney. The extended family work was an outcome of the individual work and Suzanne’s readiness to deal with family patterns and interactions. In Step 4, Harry’s individual work begins to give him some understanding of why he acts and reacts as he does. Since the couple has a better under- standing of where they begin and end as individuals and within the system (differentiation), the couple is able to begin improving their com- munication (Step 5). As a result of communication improving, more inter- generational work can be done with Harry’s family (Step 6), allowing him to grow further and differentiate himself. As a result of improved com- munication within the couple, Harry was able to see how he accepted un- warranted projections from Suzanne, which enabled him to further differentiate his functioning and create a more solid self. Harry was able to realize that he needed to do joint work with his family of origin to fur- ther free himself of old roles and patterns of behavior (Step 7). Within the 224 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON WORKING WITH COUPLES context of Harry’s intergenerational work, communication enhancement between the generations became a focus (Step 8). In integrative healing couples therapy, the growth of one individual en- ables the system. As a consequence, members of the system interact with the ability to grow and differentiate as long as the individual maintains his or her new, healthier functioning (solid self). When working with Harry’s extended family, Harry’s use of splitting when dealing with toxic issues be- came apparent. This realization lent itself to work on Harry’s individual is- sues through understanding the concept of splitting and its application to himself and interactions with others (Step 9). After working with the ex- tended family and after focusing on Harry’s use of the defense of splitting, he no longer saw himself as "the boy who runs," but as a capable man. He was able to change his cognitions about self and then act as the mature man he was becoming (Step 10). When he felt more manly and in charge of self, he began to pursue Suzanne in the way she really wanted from the begin- ning of treatment. We discussed pursuit and distance strategies, which en- abled him to change his behaviors (Step 11). As he began to pursue his wife through verbal communication, sexual issues came to the forefront. Through the use of improved communication skills and individual work, looking at feelings and beliefs about sexuality, the couples’ sexual function- ing improved (Step 12). The last step in the couple’s work was for Suzanne to own her fears around dealing with money issues. We explored her internalized images of being a woman and how they relate to making, spending, and sharing money. As Suzanne was able to act more appropriately, more mutual sharing with money, respect, and sexuality ensued (Step 13). The couple felt that concerns about the relationship were resolved at this point and they were ready to leave therapy and to enjoy the new life they had created. Taking responsibility—enabling partners to take responsibility for their parts in the dysfunction 3. Remediate and heal wounds—work toward self-healing and forgiveness, which will lead to self nurturing enabling mutual healing to occur 4. Developing a more mature connection and relationship with intimacy and friendship at the core intertwined with passion Integrative Healing Couples Therapy: A Search for the Self 225 It is most essential to calm the anxiety in the system and in the couple (Step 1). The therapist needs to focus on either the individual’s anxiety re- duction or on the couple’s interactions (around issues of abandonment, money, sex, children, etc.
Two neuronal types called islet cells and stalked cells are to be distinguished (Gobel 1978b; Todd and Lewis 1986) buy malegra fxt plus 160mg line erectile dysfunction doctor near me, and in humans buy cheap malegra fxt plus 160 mg on line impotence at 35, Schoenen and Faull (1990) describe four types: islet 160 mg malegra fxt plus mastercard erectile dysfunction beta blockers, ﬁlamentous, curly, and stellate neurons. In lamina II neurons coexist two "classical" inhibitory transmitters: the amino acids γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine, and GABA is further co-expressed with the neuropeptides methionine enkephalin and neu- rotensin (Todd and Sullivan 1990; Todd et al. As originally described by Rexed (1952, 1954) in the cat, lamina II might be sub- divided into outer and inner zones. In the outer zone, the neurons are slightly smaller and more tightly packed than in the inner zone. In the rat, Ribeiro-da- Silva (1995) further subdivided lamina II in sublaminae A, Bd, and Bv. In humans, the separation between the outer and the inner zone is much less clear (Schoenen and Faull 1990). It has been postulated that the substantia gelatinosa may func- tion as a controlling system modulating synaptic transmission from PA neurons to secondary sensory systems (Melzack and Wall 1965; Wall 1978; LeBars et al. According to Ribeiro-da-Silva (1995) such a view is no longer valid, as some cells were found to project to the brain. For example, Lima and Coimbra (1991) claimed that some islet cells project to the reticular formation (RF) of the medulla oblongata. After complex local processing in the DH (Willis and Coggeshall 1991; Parent 1996; Ribeiro-da-Silva 1995) nociceptive signals are conveyed to higher brain centers through projection neurons whose axons form several ascending ﬁber systems. Interestingly, after transection of sensory ﬁbers entering the spinal DH or the descending spinal trigeminal tract, the typical substantia gelatinosa-related en- zyme acid phosphatase disappeared (Rustioni et al. Moreover, in the descending spinal trigeminal tract a topographic localization for the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves was described using the disappearance of this enzyme (Rustioni et al. Later on, ﬂuor-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) was related to the nociceptive system (see Csillik et al. The central processes of pseudounipolar TG neurons enter the brainstem via the sensory trigeminal root. Some ﬁbers bifurcate to give a rostral branch to the principal (pontine) trigeminal nucleus (PTN) and a caudal branch that joins the spinal trigeminal tract (STrT); some axons only descend to the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) (Brodal 1981; Capra and Dessem 1992; Waite and Tracey 1995; Parent 1996; Usunoff et al. The PAs terminate somatotopically:mostventralaretheophthalmicﬁbers,inthemiddlethemaxillary Termination in the Spinal Cord and Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus 11 ﬁbers,anddorsally terminatethemandibular ﬁbers. Asmallnumber ofnociceptive ﬁbers from the 7th,9th and 10th nerves also join the spinal tract and take a position immediately dorsal to the axons of the mandibular division (Brodal 1947; Usunoff et al. Generally, the PAs emit collaterals to all three subnuclei of the STN: oralis (STNo), interpolaris (STNi), and caudalis (STNc), deﬁned by Olszewski and Baxter (1954), and according to the classical belief, nociceptive Aδ- and C-ﬁbers terminate almost exclusively in STNc. As suggested at the beginning of the century by Dejerine (1914), inputs from the nose and the lips reach the most rostral parts of STNc, and the posterior regions of the face reach the caudal parts of STNc (onion hypothesis). Terminations of trigeminal afferents are ipsilateral but some PAs with midline receptive ﬁelds terminate in the contralateral STNc (Pfaller and Arvidsson 1988; Jacquin et al. Many trigeminal PAs reach the paratrigeminal nucleus and solitary nucleus (Usunoff et al. The structure of STNc is very similar to the spinal DH (Olszewski and Baxter 1954), and since Gobel et al. It has a laminar arrangement with a marginal layer (laminaI),substantiagelatinosa(laminaII),andamagnocellularlayer(laminaeIII, IV). Lamina I is polymorphic, with few large, multipolar neurons (Gobel 1978a; Li YQ et al. The GABAergic interneurons innervate the glutamatergic projection neurons, and the latter emit collaterals to the GABA-containing cells (DiFiglia and Aronin 1990). Thus, in the STN there is a reciprocal modulation between the excitatory trigeminothalamic tract (TTT) neurons and the inhibitory interneurons. At the lateral border of the STN, especially in STNc, there are interneurons that immunoreact for NOS (Dohrn et al. In all probability, the MDH is the main, but not the sole part of the trigeminal nuclear complex responsive for nociception. However, the PAs of these regions reach all components of the trigeminal nuclear complex (Marfurt and Echtenkamp 1988; Barnett et al. The rostral parts of the STN also respond to noxious stimulation, and nociceptive responses persist in ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) after trigeminal tractotomy at the obex (Dallel et al. One was scalloped, with densely packed clear vesicles of variable size, dark axoplasm, and occasional mitochondria (Figs. These terminals, which contacted sev- eral postsynaptic dendrites, correspond to the central terminals of type 1 glomeruli (C1) described by Ribeiro-da-Silva and Coimbra (1982). Terminals of the second type were also scalloped, but with loosely packed clear vesicles of uniform size, light ax- oplasm and many mitochondria (Figs. These terminals, contacting several postsynaptic proﬁles and involved in axo-axonic contacts with symmetric active zones, correspond to the central terminals of type 2 glomeruli (C2) described by Ribeiro-da-Silva and Coimbra (1982). C1 terminals are concentrated in lamina IIo and dorsal IIi, whereas C2 terminals are concentrated in ventral lamina IIi (Bernardi et al. Glomeruli make only about 5% of the synapses in substantia gelatinosa (Ralston 1979). The majority of synapses in this region are axo-dendritic, and it is hard to relate them to a particular afferent input. The ma- jority of dome-shaped terminals are believed to originate from intrinsic neurons. Frequently, axo-axonic terminals contain ﬂattened or pleomorphic vesicles (Kerr 1975). Glutamate Receptors in the Superficial Laminae of the Spinal Cord The superﬁcial laminae of the SC are of particular interest because of their role in hosting the ﬁrst brain synapse involved in pain processing. Therefore, the question persists of how spinal neurons decode the convergent inputs at the level of the ﬁrst synapse. Providing a better understanding about the nature of the synaptic processing in superﬁcial laminae of the SC will directly improve our knowledge and strategies on howtotreatabnormalpain. Fromapharmacologicalpointofview,aﬁrstpossibility derives from a speculation that different submodalities are mediated by different neurotransmitters. The pharmacological diversity seems to play a role since the SG neurons giving rise to C-ﬁbers contain substance P, which was not found in cell bodies of normal SG giving rise to A-ﬁbers. Moreover, substance P-positive axons in this area co-localize with µ-opioid receptor (Ding et al. On the other hand, all PA terminals in the superﬁcial laminae of the SC appear to contain glutamate (Rustioni and Weinberg 1989; Salt and Herrling 1995); nevertheless, the amount of glutamate available in different anatomical classes of terminals may vary (De Biasi and Rustioni 1988; Merighi et al. Termination in the Spinal Cord and Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus 13 In general, a large variety of pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors may shape the timing and magnitude of glutamatergic transmission. Normally, glutamate is released by calcium-dependent mechanisms into the synaptic cleft. In the cleft, glutamate is present for brief periods of time because of the fast and highly speciﬁc uptake by speciﬁc transporters expressed by the nearby astrocytic or neuronal processes and terminals. In the synaptic cleft, glutamate is saturated by two ma- jor classes of glutamate receptors: ionotropic and metabotropic. The former are ligand-gated sodium/potassium and, under some circumstances, calcium channels that depolarize the postsynaptic membrane, whereas the latter are coupled to sec- ond messenger cascades that can impact metabolism.
They had one brief separation early in the marriage and two sessions of couple counseling at that time order malegra fxt plus 160 mg erectile dysfunction bangalore doctor, which they felt helped their com- munication purchase malegra fxt plus 160mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction drugs australia, but didn’t resolve their basic personality and value differ- ences generic malegra fxt plus 160 mg online erectile dysfunction treatment emedicine. Having divorced once, Laura felt she could manage on her own, but was very ambivalent about declaring she wanted a divorce, since she was fearful of hurting Michael and their children. She wanted the options for separation and divorce to be a part of the marital therapy. Their children were doing well and were relatively unaware of the depth of their parents’ problems. The first four sessions involved taking a detailed individual, mari- tal, and familial history in which it was learned that Laura felt smothered and overprotected as an only child. To the consternation of her family, at age 20 she moved to Las Vegas to cohabit with and marry an older man. His gambling addiction debts precipitated the divorce as well as her realization that she had married too young, essentially to escape her family. She moved back to her hometown, met Michael at work, and dated for a year before marrying. Michael, a quiet man and a contrast to Laura’s first husband, was attracted to her outgoing personality and ability to make friends easily. The transition to divorce therapy is not as clear as a therapist might like, often involving a fairly lengthy period in which the clients go back and forth about whether to stay together. Finally, a time comes when the therapist can offer the observation that the issue the couple is discussing has been repeat- edly addressed without resolution and that neither party has desired to or 424 SPECIAL ISSUES FACED BY COUPLES After five months of separation, Laura and Michael came in together to see the therapist again. She had received a promo- tion at work and was feeling more secure financially as well as relieved emotionally. Their daughter appeared to be adjusting well, although her se- mester grades had taken a dip as she spent increasing amounts of time with her peers. Laura worried that Michael turned to their daughter too much for emotional support, and Michael complained that Laura was too lenient with the children, perhaps in response to her own parents’ strictness. The session was spent exploring appropriate boundaries with the children and the need to establish and maintain consistent, authoritative parenting by both. They finally agreed to a therapeutic referral for their son and also to investigate a school program for kids going through divorce. A begin- ning understanding of their mutual interlocking problems with intimacy and identity, which were unresolved when they went into the marriage, was also addressed. Michael had made some progress in individual therapy in understanding the causes for his passivity and inability to show his feel- ings, his anger at his parents’ stoicism, and his emotional constriction in the marriage. He had hoped to get the unconditional love he never received from his parents from Laura, yet he could not reciprocate that love. Laura, however, was reluctant to explore the roots of her unsuccessful marital partnerships and the pattern of problems that she had replicated in her first and second marriages. She was more content to simply say she had made mistakes and to focus on the present. Following key tasks of restructuring and adjustment engendered by di- vorce, therapy can focus more on ego reparation tasks: regaining self-esteem and confidence, coping with loneliness and aloneness, and building a social support network of friends and intimates. These tasks are immeasurably helped if the person has gained a realistic understanding of the causes of the divorce, his or her contributions, and unraveling the patterns of uncon- scious childhood strivings in the marriage and other relationships as well as family of origin issues. Alvin and Pearson (1998) further point out that the relationship system before the di- vorce is likely to continue to be perpetuated in the divorce, which may lead to continuing painful conflict for all parties involved. Thus, an ambitious second-order goal of postdivorce therapy is to change this pattern of dys- functional relating and to resolve old narcissistic wounding. Such goals can improve the likelihood of better co-parenting and family relationships. The general goal is to help the person use the trauma and changes wrought by the divorce to effect further developmental change and growth. Jordan and Deluty (2000) determined that when lesbian partners had discrepant levels of identity self-disclosure, they expe- rienced lower levels of relationship quality. Dillaway and Broman (2001) found complex relationships between gen- der, race, and class in their study of marital satisfaction in almost 500 dual- income couples and suggest that studying these variables in isolation is problematic. Inequalities among the structural variables they measured were related to lower levels of couple adjustment. Haddock (2002), who like- wise investigated dual-income couples, found that these couples do better when divisions of labor are equitable and when they were not locked into traditional gender-role expectations. Individuals’ personalities may also contribute to couples’ satisfaction and stability in relationships. Asendorpf (2002) reviews the lit- erature showing an association between higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of marital quality. Lykken (2002) makes an argument for the heritability of negative personality traits, noting that when one member of a pair of identical twins divorces, the chance that the other twin will do so as well is extremely high. Trait hostility is also reliably linked to poor rela- tional functioning, especially for men; men’s hostility likewise influences their female partner’s emotional health (Kiecolt-Glaser & Newton, 2001). Watson, Hubbard, and Wiese (2000) examined associations between the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeable- ness, conscientiousness), positive and negative affectivity, and marital sat- isfaction. As predicted, people high in positivity rate their relationships as more satisfying and those high in negativity rate their relationships as much less satisfying. Extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were also reliable predictors of satisfaction; neuroticism was associated with dissatisfaction, and openness was unrelated to marital quality. When rating their partners, the only reliable indicator of relationship (dis)satis- faction was partner negativity. Personality and affectivity explained up to a third of the variance in marital satisfaction scores, indicating that indi- vidual personality does make a difference in the extent to which couples are happy. Each individual in the couples they studied contributed indepen- dently to relationship outcomes. Relational happiness was associated with partner’s low negative emotionality for both men and women. Women’s re- lational happiness was also predicted by her partner’s high positive emo- tionality and constraint (the tendency to act in a cautious manner and to conform to and endorse social norms). AFFECTIVE PROCESSES More than one researcher has noted that positive af- fect is curiously understudied in the literature on couples adjustment (Gable & Reis, 2001; Heyman, 2001); however, that is changing. Findings are converging on the discovery that relationship dissolution is not so much a the 463 Campbell, R. English] Healing or stealing : medical charlatans in the new age / by Jean-Marie Abgrall. Mayer-Hermann by Otto Dix (1926) Algora Publishing wishes to express appreciation to the French Ministry of Culture for its support of this work through the Centre National du livre New York www. From Mother Ocean to the All-Embracing Mother 139 Tcharkovski’s Baby Dolphins, — 139. This corre- spondence brought me great quantities of new information on various aspects of the cult phenomenon, particularly in France and Europe. Reviewing all these cases, from many countries, I could not help noticing that one of the principal avenues used by cults, one of their best lures and selling points, was "patamedicine".
Familiarity with the facet joints as pain generators and with injection techniques and blocks is critically important to the practicing spine interventionist cheap malegra fxt plus 160 mg on-line erectile dysfunction without pills. Imaging studies are frequently inconclusive buy generic malegra fxt plus 160 mg erectile dysfunction operation, and the diagnosis of facet joint syn- drome may be made only by the response to a carefully performed facet joint block generic malegra fxt plus 160 mg visa impotence cures natural. The spine interventionist and injection techniques also play a critical role in pain management for many of these patients. The anatomy of the so-called "articular nerves" and their relationship to facet denervation it the treatment of low back pain. The diagnostic validity and therapeutic value of lumbar facet joint nerve blocks with or without adjuvant agents. Medial branch blocks are specific for the diagno- sis of cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. Efficacy and validity of radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic lumbar zyg- apophysial joint pain. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic neck pain. Percutaneous radio-frequency neurotomy for chronic cervical zygapophyseal joint pain. Mathis Sensory nerves from deep visceral and somatic organs travel with sympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system (also see Chapter 1 for more detail about autonomic nerve anatomy). The ability to block sympathetic nerves at key points can help to reduce pain of deep somatic and visceral origin. In addition, some of these sensory inputs along the sympathetic pathways may establish re- flex arcs capable of sending impulses back to deep visceral and so- matic organs. These reflex arcs can exacerbate pain on aggravation or activation by pain fiber input. Blocking certain key relay centers along the sympathetic nervous system can break down such painful reflex arcs, resulting in relief from deep visceral and somatic pain cycles. Common Sympathetic Blockades The common sympathetic blockades are the following: Stellate: pain from face, neck, upper extremities Thoracic/splanchnic: pain from deep mediastinum Celiac: pain from upper abdomen (especially pancreas) Lumbar: pain from lower extremity Hypogastric: pain from upper pelvis Impar: pain from lower pelvis, perineum Stellate Ganglion Blockade The stellate ganglion is composed of the fusion between the most in- ferior cervical ganglion and the most superior thoracic ganglion. It is located posterior to the junction of the subclavian and vertebral arter- ies at the C7-T1 level, anterior to the junction point of the C7 vertebral body and its transverse process (Figure 12. The stellate ganglion represents a key relay station for sympathetic nerves from the head and neck as well as from the upper extremity. Radiographic contrast material spreads along the muscle plane, but there is no ev- idence of a vascular spread. A B 220 Thoracic and Splanchnic Sympathetic Blockades 221 Indications Following are indications for stellate ganglion blockade: Pain from upper face and neck (e. The op- erator should see local pooling of contrast material, never any vascu- lar runoff (Figure 12. For permanent neurolysis, 5 to 10 mL of absolute alco- hol is injected slowly under general anesthetia or heavy conscious se- dation (3–6% phenol can also be used in similar volumes). Treatment with the smaller volumes should be tried, increasing as needed for effect. An effective stellate ganglion blockade will typically produce an ip- silateral Horner’s syndrome along with ipsilateral venous engorgement of the ipsilateral upper extremity. The risk of stellate ganglion blockade includes intravascular injec- tion, particularly into the vertebral artery. In addition, the phrenic nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve are in close proximity to the stel- late ganglion, so that either could be temporarily or permanently par- alyzed. Bilateral stellate ganglionic block is not advised because it can result in respiratory compromise and loss of laryngeal reflexes. Contraindications to stellate ganglion blockade include contralateral pneumothorax, recent myocardial infarction (as the accelerator nerves to the heart pass through the stellate ganglion and will be affected such that any compensatory increase in cardiac output will be prevented), untreated heart block, glaucoma, and uncorrected coagulopathy. Thoracic and Splanchnic Sympathetic Blockades The thoracic sympathetics run vertically along the anterior lateral as- pect of the vertebral bodies from T2 to T8 and supply the middle and upper deep mediastinal structures (Figure 12. Under computed tomography the nee- dle is guided from posterior to anterior obliquely (small arrows) along the lateral as- pect of the vertebral body. The needle tip (large arrow) should lie along the anterior– lateral aspect of the vertebral body: thoracic sympathetic block, T2-T3; splanchnic sym- pathetic block, T11-T12. A B pathetics arise from T11-12 and give sympathetic supply to the lower mediastinum. Indications The indications for thoracic or splanchnic sympathetic blockade in- clude pain from deep mediastinal structures (e. Celiac Plexus Blockade 223 Technique The technique for thoracic or splanchnic sympathetic blockade involves placing a needle (22 or 25 gauge) adjacent to the thoracic vertebral bod- ies just deep enough to the pleural surface so that the tip will lie along the lateral aspect of the vertebrae at the level to be treated. Inject- ing small amounts of saline while passing the needle along an ex- trapleural course may help to avoid pneumothorax by expanding the extrapleural space (Figure 12. After appropriate temporary testing, permanent neurolysis can be achieved by using 5 to 10 mL of absolute alcohol. The risk of thoracic sympathetic blockade includes pneumothorax, bleeding, and intravascular injection. The contraindications to thoracic sympathetic blockade are uncorrected coagulopathy and contralateral pneumothorax, and a relative contraindication is allergy to any of the medications that might be administered. Celiac Plexus Blockade The celiac sympathetic ganglia are located on both sides of the celiac artery anterior to the aorta and anterior to the cura of the diaphragms (Figure 12. Celiac sympathetic nerves receive and send out im- pulses to upper abdominal viscera, including the pancreas, spleen, liver, gallbladder, mesentery, transverse colon, and stomach. Indications Indications for celiac plexus blockade include the following: Intractable pain from terminal pancreatic cancer Intractable pain from chronic pancreatitis Intractable pain from other sources of the upper abdomen including visceral arterial insufficiency Technique Celiac plexus blockade should always be performed with image guid- ance; typically CT is used. For CT guidance, one starts at approximately the T12 level to locate the celiac artery. Caudal-to-cranial tube angulation may be quite helpful to keep the needle out of the posterior inferior lung. Nee- dles should be directed from posterior to anterior such that the tips pass very close to the adjacent T12 vertebral body and terminate on ei- 224 Chapter 12 Autonomic Nerve Blockade FIGURE 12. The needle tip should be anterior to the aorta and diaphragmatic crura and at or above the celiac artery origin. The needle tips should lie on each side of the celiac artery (approximately T12 level). Often an anterior approach requires only a single needle for adequate distribution of medication along both sides of the celiac plexus. Once the needle tip has reached the target, confirmation is achieved by injecting 3 to 4 mL of iodine contrast medium (Omnipaque 240 or equivalent) to confirm that the needle tips are anterior to the cura of the diaphragms and are not in a vascular structure. For permanent relief, 5 to 10 mL of absolute alcohol (or 6% phenol) can be administered for a neurolysis (under general anesthesia). Following celiac plexus blockade, it is important to hydrate the pa- tient generously with intravenous fluids for 24 hours since vascular pooling of blood in the visceral circulation due to splanchnic vasodi- lation may render the patient quite hypotensive. Contraindications to celiac plexus blockades include uncorrected co- agulopathy, bowel obstruction, and allergy to any of the medications that might be used. Celiac plexus blockades should be avoided when there is an underlying bowel obstruction, since unopposed parasym- pathetic activity might lead to increased bowel motility.
It is encountered in countries that which are presented together to highlight the differences have gone through the demographic revolution discount malegra fxt plus 160mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction reversible, includ- in funding patterns purchase 160mg malegra fxt plus erectile dysfunction treatment center. This sta- account for about 60% of LTC expenditures and about bility is especially comforting in the face of predictions the same proportion of nursing home expenditures cheap malegra fxt plus 160mg with amex impotence specialist. Because infor- However, Medicaid plays a much larger role in the latter, mal care has traditionally been a euphemism for care pro- whereas Medicare is major funder of home care (and vided by women, the observation that larger numbers of hence LTC in general). Because a substantial portion of women are entering the labor market, combined with LTC comes from public funds, there is inevitably some 10. Proportion of persons 70 years and older with one or more ADL or IADL dependencies receiving informal assistance. This welfare-based program was designed to ance program for persons age 65 and older, was not provide medical insurance for poor persons, especially intended to cover LTC, but it has been used for this mothers and children. The ﬁrst was the tion of Medicaid funds, however, went to cover the costs imposition of prospective payment for hospitals, whereby of older persons who were in nursing homes. Indeed, a they were paid a ﬁxed amount based on each Medicare disproportionately large share of Medicaid payments patient’s Diagnosis-Related Group. Although the amount spent per paid for all their costs, there was no incentive to make recipient is much greater for developmentally disabled care more efﬁcient. Percent of persons 70 years of age and over who need help with one or more activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living by age and sex, 1995. The overall rate of disability among older women is higher for those 70–84 than for those 85+, but the pro- portion of those with ADL dependencies increases. However, once hospitals were paid a ﬁxed amount, the incentives changed drastically. Patients were discharged "quicker and sicker," creating a new demand for what came to be called postacute care (PAC). As the use of Medicare to pay for nursing homes increased, Congress applied prospective payment to them as well. Instead of calculating the expected costs of an episode of care, Medicare payments to nursing homes are based on the costs of each day of care. These costs are calculated by estimating the personnel needed to provide various levels of care, called Resource Utilization Groups (RUGs). Linking greater disability to higher RUG pay- ments inadvertently created an incentive to preserve disability. Of the fewer than half the states that use some variant of case- mix-based payments, most have opted to make these pay- ments compatible with the RUGs approach for the sake of simplicity. Whereas nursing homes are paid on a daily basis, home health care is paid for a 60-day episode and rehabilitation for 30-day episode. The dominant model was home health care, accounting for more than half of all PAC usage. Hip fracture patients are more likely to get some type of PAC than are stroke patients, and both use PAC more than congestive heart failure patients. Within a given diagnosis, for example, stroke, the likelihood of getting some PAC varies from Figure 10. Proportion of hospital discharges using postacute ments for LTC in general come more equally from Medicare care (PAC), 1995. Percent of Medicare recipients discharged from hospital using no postacute care, 1998. Congestive heart Stroke Hip fracture Hip Procedure failure Census Region Rank % Rank % Rank % Rank % East North Central 6 30. Over that decade, the proportion of funds in an acute hospital where one expects to derive substan- covered by private payment decreased, while the contri- tial beneﬁt becomes unbearable in a longer stay in a butions of Medicare, and to a lesser degree Medicaid, nursing home where the expectation of beneﬁt is far less. Institutional practices that rob patients of their iden- tity and their dignity, which impose rules developed to make care more efﬁcient but less personalized, are never The Nursing Home welcome, but they are even less so when the quality of one’s environment dramatically affects the quality of The nursing home has served as the touchstone for LTC. The standard hospital model of multiple For better or worse, other forms of LTC are usually con- persons in a room, ﬁxed hours for eating and being sidered in relationship to the nursing home. This institu- awake, limited choice of food, and a general sense of tion can be said to have a mixed heritage, descended from being driven by a therapeutic philosophy does not jibe the almshouse on one side and the hospital on the other. Changes in the sources of payment for nursing home residents age 65 and older from 1985 to 1995. The proportion of coverage from Medicare and Medicaid increased while that from private pay declined. Use of Nursing Home by the Elderly: Preliminary Data from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service; 1987, Table 9; and Georgetown University Institute for Health Care Research and Policy, 1995. For a long time, even though the supply of nursing Physically frail Home care Assisted living homes varied greatly across the country, the demand for Day care nursing home care was perceived to be so strong that Cognitively impaired Home care utilization would rise to meet the supply. For the ﬁrst time, nursing homes are now facing the Outpatient rehabilitation units potential of empty beds. Nursing home, are increasingly being used for post- Total vegetative state acute care, where the expectation is for a ﬁnite stay and discharge to the community. Nursing homes are facing new competition from tions, inherent in the notion of a nursing home, may assisted living. In fact, one might attracted to the idea of being able to live in more com- argue that the very term "nursing home" is a misnomer, modious settings, often at lower costs. People are entering nursing homes later in their about 90 min/day, primarily from nursing aides) nor a medical careers and thus dying sooner, lowering the very homelike atmosphere. The plight of the nursing home has been made more serious by asking it to play multiple roles in the lives of Nursing homes entering the postacute care market very different types of clients. In many instances the may ﬁnd themselves disadvantaged and unable to pro- nursing home is not the only institution serving this vide the services they wish. Summary less inclined to make comparable nursing home rounds, numbers about the average use of nursing home are mis- certainly not as frequently, nor is Medicare as likely to leading. Ironically, a patient may be covered homes is much higher among those aged 85 and above. Nursing home residents among persons 65 years of age and over by age, sex, and race, 1997. The pro- portion of older persons in nursing home homes increases dramatically with older ages. Concerned doctors may natives that were both more effective and less costly has have to spend considerable effort arguing why they proven frustrating, in part because long-term care is, at should be paid for their work. Some homes have physical therapists on staff, and others The search for alternatives faced many obstacles. Although nurse practitioners have been shown designed to decrease nursing home use could not show to improve primary care in nursing homes for some 3,4 an impressive difference against a low rate in the control time, they have not been widely utilized. In and nurse practitioners have been effectively used to 5,6 one sense, the nursing home is a good buy, as it includes follow nursing home residents. Purchasing room and programs directed speciﬁcally at nursing home residents board in the community is an added expense, but one have been created under the belief that aggressive may get much more than in a nursing home, where rooms primary care will prove cost-effective by reducing 7 are not private and little choice of food is offered.